Selected publications since 1991
Shved G.M., Petrova L.N. and
Polyakova O.S. Penetration
of the Earth's free oscillations at 54 minute period into the
atmosphere. Annales Geophysicae
18, No.5, 566-572, 2000.
Abstract - It is known that the fundamental spheroidal
mode 0S2 of
the Earth free oscillation with the period of about 54
min forces atmospheric oscillations. We present a certain
phase relationship for components of the 0S2 multiplet, which is based on
synchronous collocated microbarograph and seismograph
observations. This relationship is both the first
observational manifestation of the Pekeris mode of global
atmospheric oscillations with the 54 min period and a
further proof of penetrating the Earth's 0S2 mode into the atmosphere. We show that
the linear non-dissipative model of steady forced
oscillations in isothermal atmosphere at rest does not
describe penetrating the 0S2 mode into the atmosphere adequately.
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Petrova L.N. and Shved G.M. Revealing Short-Period Global
Oscillations of the Atmosphere from Seismic Observations. Izvestia, Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 36,
Abstract - A discrete spectrum of seismic oscillations
was obtained in the range of periods 1-2 h. These
oscillations were recorded in St.-Petersburg (60o
N, 30o E) by a seismometer with a vertical
pendulum. The frequency distances between the harmonics
of this spectrum are in agreement with the theory of
short-period free oscillations of the atmosphere of the
Ogibalov V.P., Kutepov A.A. and Shved G.M. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium
in CO2 in the middle atmosphere. II. Populations in the n1n2 mode manifold states. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 60,
Abstract - The NLTE problem for the v1v2
mode manifold states of CO2 molecules has been
solved using the HITRAN-92 database of spectroscopic
parameters and new rate constants for V-T and V-V
collisional processes. The effect of the vertical kinetic
te mperature and O mixing ratio profiles on the
vibrational temperatures has been investigated in detail,
as has the effect of solar pumping. We show that
accounting for transitions with the state change of two-
and more v2 -quanta during CO2-O
collisions in the lower thermosphere can increase the
vibrational temperature of doubly and triply excited
states of the v2 mode by as much
as several tens of degrees Kelvin relative to the one-
v2 -quantum transitions
commonly used to calculate state populations.
Shved G.M., Kutepov A.A. and Ogibalov V.P. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium
in CO2 in the middle atmosphere. I. Input data and
populations of the v3 mode manifold states. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 60,
Abstract - The CO2 NLTE problem has been
extended to account for all vibrational states and
transitions included in the HITRAN-92 database of
spectroscopic parameters. The set of the rate constants
for V-T and V-V collisional processes and the
model for pumping the CO2 states by OH(v) have
been revised. The effect of the vertical kinetic
temperature and O mixing ratio profiles on the
vibrational temperatures of the v3 mode
manifold states as well as the dependence of these
temperatures on the solar zenith angle have been examined
in detail. In the daytime, the lower boundary of the NLTE
layer tends to reach the ground when the energy of the v3
mode manifold states increases.
Shved G.M. and Gusev O.A. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium
in N2O, CH4, and HNO3 in the
middle atmosphere. J. Atmos.
Solar-Terr. Phys. 59, 2167-2176, 1997.
Abstract - This paper presents for the first time
theoretical estimates of the non-local thermodynamic
equilibrium (NLTE) populations for vibrational states of
the N2O and CH4 molecules in the
stratosphere and mesos phere. For N2O the
nighttime heights of the transition to NLTE decrease with
vibrational energy from about 70 km for the (0110)
state to about 55 km for the states excited in the v3
mode. For daytime the vibrational temperatures of the (0001)
state and of higher N2O states far exceed
those for nighttime. For the N2O (020l,
0221, 100l) states the daytime NLTE
layer extends throughout the entire stratosphere. For the
first excited states of the CH4 v2
and v4 modes the transition to NLTE
occurs near 60 km. The vibration-vibration (V-V) energy
exchange with N2 and O2 is
important in the mesosphere for populating the N2O
and Đ═4 states,
respectively. Using the ═NO3 molecule
as an example, we propose a simple way of estimating
roughly the NLTE population of vibrational states of
polyatomic molecules when data on the rate constants of
vibration-translation (V-T) and V-V energy transfers are
lacking. For the HNO3 states not higher than
the v2-state a speculative estimate
yields about 50 km as the lower limit for the heights of
the transition to NLTE.
Petrova L.N., Osypov K.S., Savel'ev D.D.
and Shved G.M. Forcing
atmospheric oscillations by long-period seismic oscillations: a
case study. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.
58, 1317-1322, 1996.
Abstract - Using synchronous measurements made by
microbarograph and a seismograph with a vertical
pendulum, the sign of the vertical direction of the wave
energy flux in the atmosphere at the ground has been
derived for oscillations in the ~0. 5-4 h period range
and which occur simultaneously in the Earth and
atmosphere. The seismic oscillations shown could generate
atmospheric oscillations by the Ĺpistonĺ mechanism. A
change of sign of the flux direction is also observed.
Podgorny I.A. and Shved G.M. On retrieving Rossby waves in the
middle atmosphere from measurements of thermal outgoing radiation. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57, 1209-1219,
Abstract - The first step is made in elaborating special
methods to retrieve the planetary-scale waves for the
stratosphere and mesosphere from measurements of thermal
outgoing radiation. The method is adapted for the nadir
sounding of Rossby n ormal modes of the Lamb wave type in
the 15 micron CO2 band. The main formulae are
presented in a dimensionless form. The proposed method
consists of EOF filtering to extract a wave-induced
signal and of Hermite polynomial expansions to descri be
the vertical structure of the wave. The accuracy of the
retrievals is estimated; it is dependent on the duration
of the record as well as on the number of channels. The
method is able to provide a higher accuracy than
currently available methods.
Fomichev V.I. and Shved G.M. On the closeness of the middle
atmosphere to the state of radiative equilibrium: an estimation
of net dynamical heating. J. Atmos.
Terr. Phys. 56, 479-485, 1994.
Abstract - We have evaluated the height profiles of both
globally averaged net radiative heating and the global
mean temperature for heights between 15 and 110 km for
March, June, September, and December. This latter
quantity was obtained from the thermal balance equation
taking account only of radiative processes and molecular
heat conduction. The global mean net dynamical heating,
which we assume to be mainly due to net wave heating, has
been estimated by using only radiation calculations. This
heating as a function of height is wave-like and both
positive and negative, its vertical profiles are rather
similar for various months, and its absolute value is not
more than ~5 K/day below 105 km. We recommend using the
evaluated global mean net dynamical heating for the
parameterization of net wave heating.
Sivkov A.M. and Shved G.M. Influence of latitudinal and
longitudinal variations of ozone and water vapour on the solar
semidiurnal tide. J. Atmos. Terr.
Phys. 55, 815-826, 1993.
Abstract - A new tidal source model, based on
climatological global ozone and water vapour
distributions, has been obtained for January, April, July
and October. The source model is used for modelling the
solar semidiurnal tide in the lower the rmosphere within
the framework of the classical tidal theory. The observed
phase quasibimodality of the semidiurnal tide at middle
latitudes is possibly formed, to a great extent, by two
types of hemispheric asymmetry (changing sharply near the
equinox) of the ozone distribution. Near 95 km at middle
latitudes, the ozone and water vapour distribution
nonzonality yields typical values ~2 m/s for maximum
longitudinal variations of the zonal and meridional wind
amplitudes, and the range ~0.2-0.5 h f or maximum
longitudinal phase variations in the Northern hemisphere,
while they can reach ~10 m/s and ~1.5 h in the Southern
hemisphere. The hemispheric asymmetry is mainly caused by
the effect of the water vapour tidal source.
Fomichev V.I., Kutepov A.A., Akmaev R.A.
and Shved G.M. Parameterization
of the 15 micron CO2 band cooling in the middle
atmosphere (15-115 km). J. Atmos.
Terr. Phys. 55, 7-18, 1993.
Abstract - A new parameterization of the 15 micron CO2
band radiative cooling rate in the middle Earth
atmosphere for both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium)
and non-LTE layers is presented. It includes the
parameterization of AKMAEV
and SHVED [(1982), J.
atmos. terr. Phys. 44, 993] for the 35-70 km layer,
which is modified to account for the line overlapping in
the band for the 15-35 km layer and for non-LTE effects
in the 70-80 km layer. In the non-LTE layer above 80 km a
simple recurrence relation between the cooling rates for
two neighboring altitude levels is used. For any
temperature profile, which has no micro- or meso-scale structure, the absolute error of
the parameterization in the 15-80 km layer does not
exceed 0.5 ╩ day-1. In the non-LTE
80-115 km layer the error depends on the value of the
rate constant for the de-excitation of CO2(0110)
by collisions with atomic oxygen O, not exceeding, however, 0.07,
0.4 and 4 ╩ day-1 for values of this constant
equal to 5x105, 5x106 and
Manuilova R.O. and Shved G.M. The 4.8 and 9.6 micron O3
band emissions in the middle atmosphere.
J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 1149-1168, 1992.
Abstract - For the 40-115 km
atmospheric layer, the populations of 19 vibrational
states of the ╬3 molecule have been calculated for
sets of vertical profiles of temper ature and
concentration of O and ╬3. A peculiar
feature of the day and night time vertical profiles of the vibrational temperature of
the states is at its maximum in the height range 75-90 km
which is due to the formation of vibrationally excited
molecules of O3 in the recombination: ╬2+╬+╠
--> O2+M. On the basis of the
calculated populations of the states, the limb and
downward atmos pheric emissions in the 4.8 and 9.6 micron
bands have been estimated, as well as the contributions
of the constituents of the band of vibrational
Akmaev R.A., Fomichev V.I., Gavrilov N.M.
and Shved G.M. Simulation
of the zonal mean climatology of the middle atmosphere with a
three-dimensional spectral model for solstice and equinox
conditions. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.
54, 119-128, 1992.
AbstractŚThe zonal mean state of the middle atmosphere
is simulated by a three-dimensional spectra] model,
extending approximately 15 up to 120 km. for solstice and
equinox conditions. The model includes realistic
parameterizations of atmospher ic infrared cooling, and a
gravity wave formulation based on a combination of LINDZENĺS [(1981), J.
geophys. Res. 86, 97 07] and MATSUNOĺS
[(1982), J. Met. Soc. Ja pan 60, 215]
approaches. The temperature distributions for both
seasons and the zonal wind distribution for solstice are
in satisfactory agreement with the recent empirical model
of FLEMING et al. [(1988), NASA
Technical Memorandum No. 100697 (85 pp.)].
Net vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum agree well
with available systematic observations of gravity waves
in the middle atmosphere. Dissipating and breaking waves
yield heating rates comparable with net radiation heating
in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Low
values of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficient of
order 30-50 m2 s-1 are necessary to
produce realistic temperatures around the mesopause.
Shved G.M., Khvorostovskaya L.E., Potekhin
I.Yu., Demynikov A.I., Kutepov A.A. and Fomichev V.I. Measurement of the quenching rate
constant for collisions CO2(0110)-O: the
importance of the rate constant magnit ude for the thermal regime
and radiation of the lower thermosphere.
Izvestia, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics. 27,
431-437 (Russian version), 1991.
Abstract - For the first time, the rate constant of the
quenching of CO2(0110) by atomic
oxigen has been measured for atmospheric temperatures ~ 300 K ( in gas discharge with a
hollow cathode). T he lage magnitude obtained (~ 3.5 ┤
107 s-1 Î
atm-1) has the following consequences: 1)
Cooling in the 15 micron CO2 band can en
tirely compensate solar heating of the 90-100 km layer on a globally averaged
basis, decreasing considerably the importance of eddy
heat conductivity as an energy sink; 2) For the lower
thermosphere, it should be assumed that there is a strong
relationship between the degree of O2-decomposition
(in O) and atmospheric temperature and circulation; 3)
The lower thermosphere radiance in the 15 micron CO2
band depends greatly on the mixing ratio for O.á