The deduction of the hydrodynamic equations from the molecular kinetic theory of gases. Different forms of the equations of mass, momentum and energy, which are used for the description of motions in the planetary atmospheres. Basic concepts of the mechanics of turbulence. Statistical description of turbulence. Hydrodynamic stability criterions of Reynolds and Richardson. Space-time distribution of intensity of turbulence in the planetary atmospheres. Half-empirical description of the eddy fluxes of tracers, momentum, and heat. Turbulence spectra and cascading the turbulence energy over spectrum. Turbulent diffusion. Scale analysis of atmospheric motions. Geostrophic wind. Planetary boundary layer. Ekman layer equation. Similarity approaches and closure problem for the planetary boundary layer.
Mechanisms of heating and cooling of the planetary atmospheres. Transformation of energy forms. Lorenz energy cicle. Special features of the vertical profiles of temperature in the planetary atmospheres. Geostrophic adjustment. Equations of absolute and potential vorticities. Convection in the planetary atmospheres, meso-scale Rayleigh-Benard convection, conditional instability of the second kind, macro-scale Hadley circulation. Barotropic and baroclinic instability, Rossby regime of circulation, baroclinic adjustment. Motions in midlatitude synoptic systems, cyclones and anticyclones, fronts. Tropical cyclones.
Classification of wave types. Linear theory acoustic-gravity waves (AGW). Equation of the wave energy. Sources and propagation of AGW. Observations of AGW. Inertio-gravity waves. Observations of global waves. Normal Rossby modes. Lunar and solar atmospheric tides and there sources. Equatorial waves and there sources. Gravity-wave breaking, forcing zonal-mean circulation by waves. Quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere.