Lecture courses

### Introduction to atmospheric dynamics

64 hours.

The deduction of the hydrodynamic equations from the molecular
kinetic theory of gases. Different forms of the equations of
mass, momentum and energy, which are used for the description of
motions in the planetary atmospheres. Basic concepts of the
mechanics of turbulence. Statistical description of turbulence.
Hydrodynamic stability criterions of Reynolds and Richardson.
Space-time distribution of intensity of turbulence in the
planetary atmospheres. Half-empirical description of the eddy
fluxes of tracers, momentum, and heat. Turbulence spectra and
cascading the turbulence energy over spectrum. Turbulent
diffusion. Scale analysis of atmospheric motions. Geostrophic
wind. Planetary boundary layer. Ekman layer equation. Similarity
approaches and closure problem for the planetary boundary layer.

### Circulation and energetics of the
atmosphere

54 hours.

Mechanisms of heating and cooling of the
planetary atmospheres. Transformation of energy forms. Lorenz
energy cicle. Special features of the vertical profiles of
temperature in the planetary atmospheres. Geostrophic adjustment.
Equations of absolute and potential vorticities. Convection in
the planetary atmospheres, meso-scale Rayleigh-Benard convection,
conditional instability of the second kind, macro-scale Hadley
circulation. Barotropic and baroclinic instability, Rossby regime
of circulation, baroclinic adjustment. Motions in midlatitude
synoptic systems, cyclones and anticyclones, fronts. Tropical
cyclones.

### Waves in the atmosphere

32 hours.

Classification of wave types. Linear theory acoustic-gravity
waves (AGW). Equation of the wave energy. Sources and propagation
of AGW. Observations of AGW. Inertio-gravity waves. Observations
of global waves. Normal Rossby modes. Lunar and solar atmospheric
tides and there sources. Equatorial waves and there sources.
Gravity-wave breaking, forcing zonal-mean circulation by waves.
Quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal wind in the equatorial
stratosphere.