Reseach work in  the Laboratory of Middle and Upper Planetary Atmospheres

The Laboratory performs investigations on dynamics, energetics and radiation of the middle and upper atmospheres of Earth and other planets. Main efforts and achievements are concentrated in the following regions.

 1. Acoustic-gravity and inertio-gravity waves of all periods from about the 1-minute acoustic waves to about the 1-month Rossby normal modes (Gavrilov N.M., Shved G.M., Pogoreltsev A.I., Drobyazko I.N. and Karpova N.V.). A special feature of the wave studies in the Laboratory is their variety:
 (a) Radar, optical, radiosonde, and microbarograph measurements are used to investigate the wave climate of the Earth atmosphere from the ground to the thermosphere. That means the spatial-temporal variations of different wave parameters are determined. The wave fluxes of energy and momentum, including wave heating of the atmosphere and wave acceleration of the mean flow due to dissipation of the waves, are evaluated.
 (b) Modeling  the spectrum of normal modes of atmospheric oscillation, the forcing of  waves by different mechanisms (mesoscale turbulence, seismic oscillations etc.), and the propagation and dissipation of  waves are produced. To use for simulating the general circulation of the atmosphere, the parametrizations of the wave heating and the wave acceleration, together with ones of characteristics of turbulence forced by breaking waves, are elaborated. The transport of gas atmospheric constituents, including contaminations, by means of the waves and the turbulence, forced by them, is estimated.

 2. Radiative transfer in infrared rovibrational molecular bands in the middle atmosphere of the planets and its contribution to heating/cooling of the atmospheres (Shved G.M., Manuilova R.O.,Fomichev V.I., Ogibalov V.P., Semenov A.O.). The theory of radiative transfer under the conditions of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) for vibrational and rotational states of molecules is developed in the Laboratory from the 1950s. The problems of vibrational kinetics for different molecules (CO2, O3, H2O, N2O etc.) and of nonequilibrium infrared emissions of the atmosphere are solved. The parameterizations of radiative cooling of the atmosphere and its heating due to absorption of solar radiation in infrared bands are elaborated. Thermal effects of radiation on climatic changes of the Earth middle atmosphere, including an influence of anthropogenic pollutions, are estimated.

 3. Laboratory measurements of the rate constants of aeronomic processes with applications to the kinetics of electronic and vibrational molecular states and the airglow of the middle and upper atmosphere of  the Earth, Venus, and Mars (Khvorostovskaya L.E., Yankovsky V.A., Potekhin I.Yu. and Divin D.V.). Unique techniques for measuring the rate constants in gas discharge have been devised. For example, measurements with the hollow-cathode discharge have made it possible for the first time to determine the rate constant of quenching  the CO2(0110) state by O atoms for the temperature range ~ 200-300 K. The glow discharge in oxygen is used to study the kinetics of the O2 singlet states of and the mechanisms of airglow in the Atmospheric, Herzberg I and II, and Chamberlain bands of O2.

4. Global-scale circulation, energetics, and physics of the middlle and upper atmosphere (Akmaev R. A., Fomichev V. I. and Shved G.M.). Comprehensive three-dimensional numerical modeling.  Interactions of large-scale dynamical processes (zonal mean circulation, tides) with radiation and chemistry (composition) and small-scale dynamics (gravity waves, turbulence).  Global change (long-term anthropogenic and natural variations) in the middle and upper atmosphere.  Advanced data assimilation for ground-based and spaceborn upper-atmospheric observing platforms.


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