The Earth - the Planet of the Sun System. Main characteristics
of the planets and their atmospheres. Sun, Sun radiation, solar
constant, variations of the solar radiation.
Earth atmosphere - chemical composition, vertical distribution of pressure and density.
Thermal structure of the atmosphere. Particulate composition of the atmosphere - atmospheric aerosol and clouds. Electromagnetic spectrum. Intensity, flux, energy density. Extinction, scattering and emission. Beer’s law.
Wave propagation, polarization. Stokes’ parameters. Equilibrium radiation and Kirchoff’s Laws. Blackbody radiation. Absorption spectrum of the atmosphere in different spectral regions. Main features of the molecular absorption. Line position, line intensity and shape of lines. Transmission functions. Band models. Different types of scattering in the atmosphere. Reflection from the surfaces. Introduction to the theory of radiative transfer. Integral equations of radiative transfer. Thermal radiation calculations in the clear atmosphere. Radiative transfer in the scattering atmosphere. Atmospheric emissions. Atmospheres in radiative equilibrium. Radiation balances of surface, atmosphere and the Earth. Antropogenius influences on the Earth’s climate.
The deduction of the hydrodynamic equations from the molecular kinetic theory of gases. Different forms of the equations of mass, momentum and energy, which are used for the description of motions in the planetary atmospheres. Basic concepts of the mechanics of turbulence. Statistical description of turbulence. Hydrodynamic stability criterions of Reynolds and Richardson. Space-time distribution of intensity of turbulence in the planetary atmospheres. Half-empirical description of the eddy fluxes of tracers, momentum, and heat. Turbulence spectra and cascading the turbulence energy over spectrum. Turbulent diffusion. Scale analysis of atmospheric motions. Geostrophic wind. Planetary boundary layer. Ekman layer equation. Similarity approaches and closure problem for the planetary boundary layer.
( Prof., Dr. Yu.M.Timofeev )
Different types of measurements. Direct and inverse problems of atmospheric optics. Remote, indirect measurements. Different types of remote measurement classification. Passive and active remote measurements. Types of measurement geometry. Solar attenuation remote sensing methods. Bouguet’s methods ( long and short ). Ground-based spectroscopic methods of the ozone content determination. Trace gases determination from data on absorption of direct solar radiation. Determination of aerosol characteristics from solar attenuation measurements. Cloud features from attenuation measurements. Thermal radiation remote methods. Determination of sea surface temperature ( SST ). Accuracy of the SST determination. SST determination in cloudy atmosphere. Determination of land surface temperature. Temperature sounding of the atmosphere ( TS ). Spectral and limb temperature soundings. Accuracy of TS in different conditions. Microwave sounding of the temperature. Humidity, ozone and trace gases sounding. Remote sounding of the cloudy atmosphere. Soil moisture, ice and snow determinations. Remote measurements by scattered solar radiation measurements. Ozone, aerosol and trace gases measurements. Polarization methods. Surface remote sounding, influences of the atmosphere. Refraction as a source of information on the atmosphere. Lidar methods of remote sounding of the atmosphere, surface and ocean. Lidar equations. Different methods of aerosol and trace gases sounding. Determination of the wind. Radar methods. Cloud and rain radar. Acoustic remote methods. Global observation systems for weather analysis and forecast, climate and ozone monitoring, etc.
The course purpose is training of the students to skills of work on computers of the type PC X86 (models from 286 up to Pentium), using of base resources of the computer and typical software. The program of the course means direct demonstration of the material on the computer and practical work of each student on the computer.
From atmospheric sciences "the Physics of clouds " is one of the most early and developed, as for men questions of formation of clouds and precipitations were always vital. "Physics of atmospheric aerosols" as the separate science has developed rather recently. In 50th the aerosols were investigated basically as potential nucleuses of condensation. The wide development of optical methods of study of the atmosphere has resulted in understanding of importance of a role of aerosols in radiation atmospheric processes. In 70th the researchers have paid attention to importance of participation of aerosols in atmospheric chemical processes. It is necessary also to note, that the phenomena of the atmospheric electricity for the explanation also require the knowledge of processes of interaction between ions and aerosol particles. All this was resulted in active complex researches of atmospheric aerosols and forming of a science "Physics and chemistry of aero-dispertion systems ", uniting physics of atmospheric aerosols and physics of clouds.
The main mechanisms of energy transfer with participation of excited atoms and molecules are considered in the Middle atmosphere and low thermosphere. The systematic review of chemical reactions of vertical profile formation for main atmospheric emissions is given. Contribution of metastable components in heating and cooling of low thermosphere is considered.